One XenServer 6.0.2 active path showing

Only 1 path active on XS which is part of the pool
While creating new SR on XS 6.0.2 on EMC VNX 5300 will show one host with 1 active path rest all have all the active path . When multipath -ll is run it will also show one path . This shows that all the path is not having access to the lun .

From the host which has an issue logoff all the active path

iscsiadm -m node -U all  and then logback in iscsiadm -m node -L all.

Restart the multipathd service /etc/init.d/multipathd restart. This will bring all the path active on the host.

A NEW XENDESKTOP 7.6 INSTALLATION, ‘UNABLE TO UPLOAD DISK’

Source: MY VIRTUAL VISION

XenDesktopI was setting up a new lab environment based on vSphere 5.5 and XenDesktop 7.6. When I wanted to deploy a new image within XenDesktop I got an error message ‘Unable to upload disk’.

I was running this setup on Nutanix hardware which I split up into two different Nutanix clusters to do some inter-cluster testing. My lab setup was built with vSphere 5.5, vCenter 5.5 and 2 VMware Clusters, again 2 clusters to do some inter-cluster testing.

From a Nutanix perspective I’ve created two storage pools and two containers.

Just for the general understanding of our definition of a storage pool and container:

Storage Pool
  • Key Role: Group of physical devices
  • Description: A storage pool is a group of physical storage devices including PCIe SSD, SSD, and HDD devices for the cluster.  The storage pool can span multiple Nutanix nodes and is expanded as the cluster scales.  In most configurations only a single storage pool is leveraged.
Container
  • Key Role: Group of VMs/files
  • Description: A container is a logical segmentation of the Storage Pool and contains a group of VM or files (vDisks).  Some configuration options (eg. RF) are configured at the container level, however are applied at the individual VM/file level.  Containers typically have a 1 to 1 mapping with a datastore (in the case of NFS/SMB).

I created the XenDesktop environment, the Windows 7 image and was ready to start deploying desktops and was expecting a blazing performance.. Instead of pushing out desktops the XenDesktop console threw me an error: ‘Unable to upload disk’.

First thing I started on was to run all the tests within the XenDesktop console just to make sure that the XenDesktop installation and configuration was ok (which it was of course :)).

Next step was to run the error through Google and apparently I wasn’t the only one with this issue:

None of them resembled my exact issue tho, so I took another look at my environment and found that I’ve made a rookie mistake by creating two containers with the same name within the same VMware vCenter config (2 different clusters) which resulted in one datastore in VMware (vSphere actually merged my two different datastores based on the name) and there was only one cluster configured in XenDesktop and thus failing the upload of the disk.

Within the ‘passive’ Nutanix cluster I removed the old container and created the new container (Did I mentioned it took me about 5 minutes to do that?) and after that I was able to deploy the newly build image.

Kees Baggerman

Kees Baggerman is a senior performance and solution engineer for desktop and application virtualization solutions at Nutanix. Kees has driven numerous Microsoft and Citrix, and RES infrastructures functional/technical designs, migrations, implementations engagements over the years.

XenApp 6.0 Troubleshooting tools

Citrix Troubleshooting Tools

General
Advanced Access Control
Application Isolation Environment
Fatal Errors and Application Crashes

Citrix Access Gateway
Citrix Licensing

Citrix Password Manager

Clients

Content Redirection

CPU Utilization and Memory Optimization

Data Store Issues

Independent Management Architecture

Installation Manager

Installation/Migration

Load Balancing

Login/Authentication

NetScaler
Performance

Ports and Printing

Resource Manager

Seamless

Shadowing

Teros

Virtual IP (VIP)

Web Interface

General

-These tools can be used in most problem types.

What What it does More information
Citrix Utility AppEdit Simple GUI tool to allow quick management of published applications on a Citrix Server farm. Useful to quickly move and change published applications between servers to isolate a test environment or take a suspect server out of the possible causes. Can be used in conjunction with CHFarm to isolate a server.
Centralis Centinel Reboot Monitors connections to a Terminal Server and reboots it once all users are logged off or disconnected. Can also automatically run a script before reboot. This tool can be used to automate the implementation of a fix or registry hack and then reboot the server without causing any data loss for users.
CHFARM

-Available with the Citrix Presentation Server or XenApp 5 installation

Presentation Server Administration Guide – Appendix A

An administrator can use CHFARM to move a server from its current server farm. The server can be moved to an existing server farm or can be moved into a new farm which is created at the same time that the server is moved.

CHFARM can be used to isolate problems and prove whether the data store is involved, or causing the issue.

If the server you want to move provides information for a Resource Manager summary database, update the summary database before using chfarm.

CTX736659

Common Diagnostics Facility (CDF)

– Available with the Citrix Presentation Server/XenApp installation

The Common Diagnostic Facility (CDF) is a utility available as part of the Access Suite Console that allows administrators to collect traces for problem analysis/diagnosis.

Traces can be collected on all retail binaries from MetaFrame Presentation Server 3.0 onwards without the need for stopping and starting services or disrupting users. Traces can be started and stopped remotely through the Access Suite Console, and can be easily packaged and uploaded to Citrix Technical Support to assist in problem diagnosis and resolution.

Usage: Generally this tool is used on the advice of Citrix Technical Support in relation to a specific support case.

There are many articles on support.citrix.com detailing which “modules” to select for tracing particular types of problems.
[Document Not Found] CDF Viewer is a utility that allows you to view the output of a diagnostics log file that is created when a CDF trace session is completed using either the MetaFrame Access Suite Console or the CDF Viewer itself.
CDFControl CDFControl is a software debugging utility that captures Citrix Diagnostic Facility (CDF) trace output messages that are output from the various Citrix product modules. To get this tool you need to authenticate to our support site. Support.citrix.com
User Profile Deletion Utility Delprof is a command-line utility that you can use to delete user profiles on local or remote computers running Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003. User profiles can grow large and may take up considerable disk space, especially if there are several users using one computer. Can be used in scenarios where there is only one user experiencing the problem or to clean local profiles off a Presentation Server.
WireShark Used to gather and analyze Network in several file formats. This tool can capture data “off the wire” or can read data saved in files from previous captures. Displayed data can be filtered to narrow down your search to traffic to and from a particular IP address. Understanding the protocol you are analyzing (such as TCP/IP) is a prerequisite to understanding the results of this tool. Example case studies: CTX110007
ExamDiff This tool is for comparing text files. Very useful for comparing good CDF traces with bad CDF traces. Capture two separate traces of any technical issue experience. Parse your output pointing to TMF files. Save the parsed output from CdfViewer to CSV format and use Examdiff to speed up the comparison of the output. Could also be used for comparing XML files for Web Interface setups.
fc.exe

– Native to Windows 2000, Windows 2003 and Windows 2008

Can be used to compare ntuser.dat files. fc /?
Process Monitor Permissions issues, such as user can not perform a task but an administrator can. Look for “File Not Found” or ”Permission Denied” on specific registry keys or values or search for .wav files for system beeps.

Example case studies: CTX109109

ICAPORT

-Installed with Presentation Server

Use icaport to query or change the TCP/IP port number used by the ICA protocol on the server. The default port number is 1494. The port number must be in the range of 0–65535 and must not conflict with other well-known port numbers. CTX101594
MessageHistory Simple GUI tool that traces window messages, like Spy++ or Winspector, but easier to use.

Consists of two executable files (32- and 64-bit). Simply start the exe, select via tick boxes which messages should be traced and click start.

Used to troubleshoot issues with GUI, Seamless, Clipboard, client, and so on.
MSGHOOK.EXE V4.0.1.0

– Presentation Server 4.x Server CD – Support – Debug: Windows 2003

MsgHook.exe (Message Hook) is an executable from Citrix Independent Management Architecture. MsgHook is a command line utility that displays all IMA traffic on a member server – Note: Execute msghook only if information is requested by a Citrix Technical Support representative or a Citrix engineer. When invoked, this command significantly reduces Presentation Server performance.
[Document Not Found] The PDBFinder Deluxe utility simplifies finding rare program database (PDB) or debug (DBG) files (symbols) or determine a hotfix corresponding to a given module name and date.
Process Explorer v15.23 Process Explorer shows information about which handles and DLLs processes have opened or loaded. Can be used for tracking down DLL-version problems or handle leaks, and provide insight into the way Windows and applications work. For Application Isolation Environment you can see if DLLs and Named Objects are virtualized.

For Virtual Memory Optimization issues, you can use Process explorer to highlight relocated DLLs.

PsExec v1.98 PsExec is a light-weight telnet-replacement that lets you execute processes on other systems, complete with full interactivity for console applications, without having to manually install client software. Can be used in combination with SystemDump.exe to execute a system dump remotely.
Qfarm (query farm)

– Installed with Presentation Server

Use this to display information about servers within an IMA based server farm. For Example: display the current load on each server with qfarm /load, list all currently active servers in the farm with qfarm /online. Presentation Server Administrator’s Guide – Appendix A
QRYClientIP Command line tool to query a session’s client IP. Used to allow one login script to process specific commands for specific IP addresses or IP segments.
QUERY PROCESS Displays information about processes running on a terminal server. You can use this command to find out which programs a specific user is running, and also which users are running a specific program.
QUERY SESSION Displays information about sessions on a terminal server. The list includes information not only about active sessions but about other sessions that the server runs.
QUERY TERMSERVER Displays a list of all terminal servers on the network.
QUERY USER Displays information about user sessions on a terminal server.
QueryDC

– Presentation Server installation CD – Support – Debug

The QueryDC utility is used to determine the data collector for a given zone. Without any parameters, Querydc defaults to the host server’s zone and returns the zone name and name of the current zone data collector.
[Document Not Found]

– Presentation Server installation CD – Support – Debug

Use this utility to display information about member servers in the farm. Executing queryhr with no parameters lists all servers in the farm. Queryhr obtains information from the local host cache.
Regshot This tool compares two registry snapshots. This tool can be used to troubleshoot issues with server configuration/custom registry settings
SHADOW Enables you to remotely control an active session of another user.
wbemtest.exe

– Native to Windows 2000, Windows 2003, and Windows 2008

Troubleshooting Issues that Involve WMI Data. This would mainly include issues with licensing, the Access Suite Console, Suite Monitoring and Alerting or the Presentation Server Management pack for MOM.

The tool can be used to test basic functionality of WMI providers.

BareTail(Pro), BareGrep(Pro) log file monitoring tool

file finding and text searching tool

Fiddler Fiddler is a HTTP Debugging Proxy which logs all HTTP traffic between your computer and the Internet. Fiddler allows you to inspect all HTTP Traffic, set breakpoints, and “fiddle” with incoming or outgoing data. Fiddler is designed to be much simpler than using NetMon or Achilles, and includes a simple but powerful JScript.NET event-based scripting subsystem.
MemProfiler .NET Memory Profiler is a powerful tool for finding memory leaks and optimizing the memory usage in programs written in C#, VB.NET or any other .NET Language.

It allows you to retrieve information about all instance allocations performed on the garbage collected heap (GC heap) and all instances that reside on the GC heap. The retrieved information is presented in real-time, both numerically and graphically. Using the new unmanaged resources tracker, information about unmanaged resources such as HBITMAP, HWND and unmanaged memory is also presented.

Microsoft Network Monitor (NetMon) A network protocol analyzer that captures network traffic for display. Useful when troubleshooting network issues related to performance, disconnects, etc.

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Application Isolation Environments

What What it does More information
AIERUN

– Available with the Citrix Presentation Server/XenApp installation

This is the command to launch an isolated application. Primarily for use in scripting environments. Aierun is an internal launcher used by Presentation Server during application launching.

Can be used to modify shortcuts in a desktop to launch an application in Isolation.

For troubleshooting purposes this could be used to test running the application in Application Isolation Environment without publishing it (remove a layer of complexity)Syntax Aierun AieName c:pathapp.exe

Presentation Server Administration Guide – Appendix A + Errata

Dependency Walker Dependency Walker (Depends) is a useful GUI tool for pointing to an executable on a system and listing all the DLLS required by that DLL, it will highlight any missing DLLs or conflicts. Dependency Walker (Depends) is a useful tool for trouble-shooting application errors, file registration errors, memory access violations, and invalid page faults.

Also useful for troubleshooting Application Isolation Environment issues.

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Fatal Errors and Application Crashes

– any fatal errors on servers, Dr Watson userdump

What What it does More information
How to Use the Citrix Symbol Server to Obtain Debug Symbols The Citrix Symbol Server can be used to obtain the symbol files necessary to debug Citrix products. The symbol server currently contains symbols for the CPS3.0 to XenApp5.0 products. You must use a debugging tool to connect to the Citrix Symbol Server
[Document Not Found] The Citrix DumpCheck tool helps to diagnose corrupt dumps. This tool is easier and quicker to use than launching WinDbg.exe and then loading the dump, and so on. Before sending dump files to another party, check that the file is not corrupt
[Document Not Found] The Citrix DumpCheck Utility helps diagnose corrupt dumps. This tool is easier and quicker to use than launching WinDbg.exe and then loading the dump, and so on. Unlike the Explorer extension described in CTX108825 – Citrix DumpCheck Explorer Extension version 1.4, it doesn’t require changing the environment. CTX108890
Dependency Walker Dependency Walker (Depends) is a useful GUI tool for pointing to an executable on a system and listing all the DLLS required by that DLL, it will highlight any missing DLLs or conflicts Dependency Walker (Depends) is a useful tool for trouble-shooting application errors, file registration errors, memory access violations, and invalid page faults.

Also useful for troubleshooting Application Isolation Environment issues.

Dr. Watson

– Available with the Windows 2003 installation

Collect the dump file when applications crash or suddenly exit. Enable Dr Watson by issuing the DrWtsn32.exe –I command at the command prompt. Further configuration options are available by issuing the command DrWtsn32.exe.

When enabled, Dr Watson generates a dump file and a log file in the Documents and SettingsAll UsersDocumentsDrWatson directory (by default). The log file can be used to determine basic information about the error, and the dump file can be analyzed with WinDbg.

Example case studies: CTX108312

LiveKD LiveKD allows you to run the KD and Windbg Microsoft kernel debuggers, which are part of the Debugging Tools for Windows package, locally on a live system. Execute all the debugger commands that work on crash dump files to look deep inside the system. See the Debugging Tools for Windows documentation and our book for information on how to explore a system with the kernel debuggers. Citrix Technical Support may request you to use LiveKD in certain circumstances
LoadOrder If you need to see the order in which the system loads device driver, this tool is for you! Can be useful in resolving device driver conflicts, exp when multiple drivers for the same device exist on the system.
[Document Not Found] The PDBFinder Deluxe utility simplifies finding rare program database (PDB) or debug (DBG) files (symbols) or determine a hotfix corresponding to a given module name and date.
[Document Not Found] The SystemDump GUI utility can force a server to generate a memory dump from the session or when a keyboard is not available or non-standard (fatal error).
UMDH UMDH dumps information about the heap allocation of a process and can be used to determine memory leaks. CTX104201
User Mode Process Dumper Version 8.1 You can use the Userdump.exe tool to generate a user dump of a process that shuts down with an exception or that stops responding (hangs). Before dumping a hanging process, it is helpful to take a screenshot of the Qslice.exe window. This output will assist in dump analysis. Microsoft Knowledge Base article 241215
WinDBG Use WinDbg to open crash dumps obtained from Dr. Watson, manually generated userdumps, or Windows crashes. Once the crash dump has finished loading, many commands can be used to provide helpful information about the error.

The command !analyze –v performs basic exception analysis, reporting the error that occurred and the module in which it occurred.

The command lmv can be used to show all of the modules loaded, including their full path and version information.

Search support.citrix.com for “WinDBG” to get a list of How To guides.
WinDBG 64-bit This is the Windows debugger for 64-bit platforms.

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Citrix Access Gateway

What What it does More information
[Document Not Found] Secure Access Client Remover is used to detect if any Secure Access Client modules or registry entries are left after uninstalling it. If the installation of the Secure Access client is suspected to cause a conflict with another application and has to be removed for testing.

CTX108092

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Citrix Licensing

What What it does More information
LMNEWLOG

– Installed on Citrix License Server

The lmnewlog utility switches the report log file by moving the existing report log information to a new file, then starting a new report log with the original report log file name. Advanced Concepts Guide
LMSWITCH

– Installed on Citrix License Server

The lmswitch utility switches the debug log file written by the Citrix vendor daemon by closing the existing debug log for that vendor daemon and starting a new debug log for that vendor daemon with a new file name. Advanced Concepts Guide

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Citrix Password Manager

What What it does More information
CTXDOMAINPREP.EXE

– Password Manager CD – Tools folder: Password Manager 4.0

A domain administrator can use the Active Directory Setup for the MetaFrame Password Manager utility to set the correct permissions for these objects. This tool is a utility, run from a command line, that sets the correct permissions for these objects on
CTXFILESYNCCLEAN.EXE

– Password Manager CD – Tools folder: Password Manager 4.0

CtxFileSyncClean.exe removes any folders in your central store that point to objects that were deleted. This ensures that your environment contains the most up-to-date information.
CTXFILESYNCPREP.EXE

– Password Manager CD – Tools folder: Password Manager 4.0

Delegating administration of a Citrix Password Manager central store to a group or user account that is not a domain administrator. By default, no permissions are allowed to propagate from root share to the child folders CentralStoreRoot and People.
CTXNWFILESYNCPREP.EXE

– Password Manager CD – Tools folder: Password Manager 4.0

If you plan to use a Novell NetWare folder as your central store, you must create (while logged on with supervisor rights) the shared folder and a folder named People inside the shared folder.
CTXSCHEMAPREP.EXE

– Password Manager CD – Tools folder: Password Manager 4.0

Delegating administration of a Citrix Password Manager central store to a group or user account that is not a domain administrator. The schema preparation tool must be run by a member of the Schema Administrators group for the target forest.

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Clients

What What it does More information
CHANGE CLIENT

– Available with the Citrix Presentation Server/XenApp installation.

Presentation Server Administration Guide – Appendix A

“Change client” changes the current disk drive, COM port and LPT port mapping settings for a client device.

“Change Client” or “CHGCDM” command

Can be used to query or refresh client setting or printer settings. May correct settings for a timing issue at connect time or clients reconnecting from a new device.
FTACLN The FTACLN utility can be used to clean up the file type associations in the Windows Registry on the device running the Program Neighborhood Agent.

After uninstalling the Program Neighborhood Agent Version 6.3x from a client device and restarting, some of the file types associated with the PNAgent can remain on the client device. This is evident, for example, when you double-click a .txt file in Explorer and the “Executable Cannot be Found” Windows message appears.

CTX101594

Can also be found on:

Presentation Server 4.x Server CD – Support – Debug

MessageHistory Simple GUI tool that traces window messages, like Spy++ or Winspector, but easier to use.

Consists of two executable files (32- and 64-bit). Simply start the exe, select via tick boxes which messages should be traced and click start.

Used to troubleshoot issues with GUI, Seamless, Clipboard, client, and so on.
MSI Installation Log

– Available with the Windows installation

The Microsoft Windows Installer Tool can generate a log of an MSI-based installation.

To enable this the MSI file must be installed using the MSEXEC command from the command prompt.

Microsoft Knowledge Base article227091
Repair Clipboard Chain 2.0.1 The RepairCBDChain utility temporarily restores clipboard functionality.

Run the RepairCBDChain utility on your workstation and/or inside the session desktop

[Document Not Found] The RepairCBDChain64 utility for x64 platforms.
TWCONFIG

– Installed with Presentation Server

Use twconfig to configure ICA display settings that affect graphics performance for clients. Presentation Server Administration Guide – Appendix A
WindowHistory 4.0 for 32-bit platforms The WindowHistory utility complements Spy++ and other tools. It constantly monitors windows in the system (session) and records all changes made to it. Information about windows can then be saved for further analysis.
[Document Not Found] This is the version of the WindowHistory tool that works on ARM processors.
WindowHistory64 4.0 for x64 Platforms This is the version of the WindowHistory tool that works on 64-bit platforms.
Winspector Winspector is a freeware that can be used instead of Spy++ with mostly the same functionality.

It captures all messages (keyboard input, mouse movements/click, changes in the window size and location, and so on) sent to a particular application for identifying issues with ICA clients, compare results inside a session and outside a session, keyboard mapping issues, and so on.

Useful for troubleshooting some Seamless Windows issues and allows distinguishing of the Window Class Name, which is then used to set an exception flag.

CTX101644

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Content Redirection

What What it does More information
FTACLN The FTACLN utility can be used to clean up the file type associations in the Windows Registry on the device running the Program Neighborhood Agent.

After uninstalling the Program Neighborhood Agent Version 6.3x from a client device and restarting, some of the file types associated with the Program Neighborhood Agent can remain on the client device. This is evident, for example, when you double-click a .txt file in Explorer and the “Executable Cannot be Found” Windows message appears.

CTX101594

Can also be found on:

Presentation Server 4.x Server CD – Support – Debug

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CPU Utilization and Memory Optimization

What What it does More information
ADSCleaner 2.0 Citrix Memory Optimization works by creating Alternate Data Streams on each of the optimized files. Disabling the feature or adding a file to the exclusion list does not remove the Alternate Data Stream. The ADSCleaner.exe utility lists and optionally deletes alternative data streams created by Citrix memory optimization code.
[Document Not Found] Citrix Memory Optimization works by creating Alternate Data Streams on each of the optimized files. Disabling the feature or adding a file to the exclusion list does not remove the Alternate Data Stream. The ADSCleaner64.exe utility lists and optionally deletes alternative data streams created by Citrix memory optimization code on x64 platforms.

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Data Store Issues

– database corrupted, database migration issue, database connection issues

What What it does More information
DSCHECK – XenApp Data Store Checker Tool Commands DSCheck provides a way to perform validation checks on a server farm’s data store. Results are displayed on the console and written to the event log. The /clean option deletes inconsistent records. Citrix recommends that you back up the data store before using the /clean option. Further information on using this tool can be found in Citrix Knowledge Base article CTX124406
DSMaint

– Available with the Citrix Presentation Server/XenApp installation

DSMAINT is used to configure the IMA data store database for a server farm. When using this command, user names and passwords may be case-sensitive, depending on the database product being used and the operating system it runs on.
DSView

– Available on the Support folder of the Server CD

DSView can be used when you need to look at the value or find a specific record in the data store or the local host cache. DSView works by capturing the data from the Binary Large Object (BLOB) and placing it in an order so it can be interpreted. CTX106232
fc.exe

– Native to Windows 2000, Windows 2003 and Windows 2008

Can be used to compare ntuser.dat files fc /?
[Document Not Found] This script will terminate all IMA connections to an SQL 2000 database. CTX106684
[Document Not Found]

– Presentation Server/XenApp installation CD – Support – Debug

Use this utility to display information about member servers in the farm. Executing queryhr with no parameters lists all servers in the farm. Queryhr obtains information from the local host cache.

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Independent Management Architecture (IMA)

What What it does More information
[Document Not Found] This script will terminate all IMA connections to an SQL 2000 database. CTX106684
IMAPORT

– Installed with Presentation Server

Use imaport to query, set or reset the IMA – TCP/IP port. Important: If you change port number 2513 on the first server in the farm on which you install MetaFrame Presentation Server, you cannot join additional servers to the server farm. Administrators Guide – Appendix A

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Installation/Migration

– any issue related to installation or migration of Presentation Server, unable to install/uninstall

What What it does More information
MSI Installation Log

– Available with the Windows installation

The Microsoft Windows Installer Tool can generate a log of an MSI-based installation.

To enable this the MSI file must be installed using the MSEXEC command from the command prompt.

Microsoft Knowledge Base article 227091
Wilogutl.exe

– Available with Microsoft Platform SDK

Wilogutl.exe assists the analysis of log files from a Windows Installer installation, and it displays suggested solutions to errors that are found in a log file.

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Load Balancing

What What it does More information
[Document Not Found] Because all of the dynamic information is stored in tables in the data collector’s physical RAM, this command-line utility is provided to query the current information on the local zone data collector. You can use QueryDS to determine which servers are currently available in a farm. It retrieves all information from the tables stored on the local zone data collector. For example, the PN_Table contains information about all available servers that are accepting Program Neighborhood connections.

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Login/Authentication

– any authentication issue such as Single Sign On, smart card authentication, Novell authentication

What What it does More information
ACRCFG

– Available with the Citrix Presentation Server/XenApp installation

Use ACRCFG to configure or enable automatic client reconnection settings for a server or a server farm.

acrcfg [/server:servername | /farm][/query | /q]

acrcfg /?

Troubleshoot client disconnects or not getting automatically reconnected.
AUDITLOG

– Available with the Citrix Presentation Server/XenApp installation

Auditlog generates reports of logon/logoff activity for a server based on the Windows NT Server security event log. To use auditlog, you must first enable logon/logoff accounting. You can direct the auditlog output to a file. Presentation Server Administration Guide – Appendix A
Limit Login The application adds the ability to limit concurrent user logins and to keep track of all login information in an Active Directory domain. LimitLogin capabilities include limiting the number of logins per user from any machine in the domain (including Terminal Server sessions), displaying the login information of any user in the domain according to specific criteria.

While the main purpose of LimitLogin is to enforce concurrent login quotas, it can also be used purely as a login data capture solution that lets you manage your Active Directory environment more effectively.

LogonSessions v1.21 When you want to see who is authenticated and is running a session on a server. It lists the currently active logon sessions and the processes running in each session. It lists the session ID, name of the user, the authentication type, SID, Logon Server and Domain of the user.
Netdiag Netdiag.exe is a command-line tool that you can use to test the network connectivity of the computer. Netdiag.exe performs a series of tests to determine the state and functionality of your network client computer. You can use the results of these tests, and the network status information that is provided by Netdiag.exe, to isolate network and connectivity problems on your Windows based workstation or server. Can be used for troubleshooting multihomed servers or client latency.
Nltest.exe Nltest.exe is a very powerful command-line utility that can be used to test trust relationships and the state of domain controller replication in a Windows NT domain. Can be used for multi domain farms where you suspect trusts to be an issue, when publishing applications to users or using Advanced Access Control.
MedEvac 2.5 The MedEvac tool is utilized to run checks against a Presentation Server farm to verify environment health. CTX108311
QueryDC The QueryDC utility is used to determine the data collector for a given zone. Without any parameters, Querydc defaults to the host server’s zone and returns the zone name and name of the current zone data collector.
[Document Not Found] Because all of the dynamic information is stored in tables in the data collector’s physical RAM, this command-line utility is provided to query the current information on the local zone data collector. You can use QueryDS to determine which servers are currently available in a farm. It retrieves all information from the tables stored on the local zone data collector. For example, the PN_Table contains information about all available servers that are accepting Program Neighborhood connections.
User Profile Hive Cleanup Service UPH Clean fixes issues with “stuck” user profiles. It kills any processes that have hooks open to the user’s profile after the user initiates the logoff process.

Issues with this are commonly encountered with roaming user profiles.

Microsoft Knowledge Base article 837115
Userenv.log

– Available with the Windows installation

The Userenv.log file is used for capturing logging and debugging information regarding the user profile and the Windows system policy processes, including registry accesses, during the logon process. This can be helpful for troubleshooting issues that occur during the logon to a Citrix server.

Because of the large amount of data logged, it should be enabled on an isolated server when possible.

Microsoft Knowledge Base article 221833

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NetScaler

What What it does More information
NSCONMSG

– Located in /netscaler/ on all NetScaler systems

Executed from SHELL in a NetScaler SSH session. Examples of the command are: (Note the capital K as a command switch!!)

nsconmsg -K /var/nslog/newnslog -d consmsg gives you all messages sent to the console during the timeline covered by the newnslog

nsconmsg -K /var/nslog/newnslog -d ? lists other arguments which can be used to gather more information.
SHOW

– Part of the NetScaler CLI, all versions of the NetScaler operating system

Run this command to view current configuration information. It extracts a snapshot of information from the NetScaler Kernel. Use this command if you are not familiar with the configuration or environment in which the NetScaler sits.

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Performance

– ICA session slow, server slow down, ICA session hangs, application hangs, server hangs

What What it does More information
[Document Not Found] The Automatic Farm Tuner utility is designed to tweak the advanced registry setting on the data collectors in a large farm and tune the data collectors to adapt to a large farm environment. With this utility in place, all manual performance tweaking on the data collectors can be automatically set. CTX108456
[Document Not Found] “Citrix Connection Test Tool” provides various connection methods for scalability test and other tests which require a number of sessions to be established. The tool enables testers to establish as many numbers of ICA sessions as they want by creating or duplicating session settings on Citrix Presentation Server Client. Useful for loading the server for trying to identify performance issues.
[Document Not Found] The Citrix Server Test Kit (CSTK) version 2.1 is an automated tool that can be used by administrators to configure and run various user load combinations. Can be used for loading servers for performance testing.

CTX091649

Netdiag Netdiag.exe is a command-line tool that you can use to test the network connectivity of the computer. Netdiag.exe performs a series of tests to determine the state and functionality of your network client computer. You can use the results of these tests, and the network status information that is provided by Netdiag.exe, to isolate network and connectivity problems on your Windows based workstation or server. Can be used for troubleshooting multihomed servers or client latency.
TWCONFIG

– Installed with Presentation Server/XenApp

Use twconfig to configure ICA display settings that affect graphics performance for clients.
Userdump You can use the Userdump.exe tool to generate a user dump of a process that shuts down with an exception or that stops responding (hangs). Before dumping a hanging process, it is helpful to take a screenshot of the Qslice.exe window. This output will assist in dump analysis. Microsoft Knowledge Base article 241215
WinDBG Use WinDbg to open crash dumps obtained from Dr. Watson, manually generated userdumps, or Windows crashes. Once the crash dump has finished loading, many commands can be used to provide helpful information about the error.

The command !analyze –v performs basic exception analysis, reporting the error that occurred and the module in which it occurred.

The command lmv can be used to show all of the modules loaded, including their full path and version information.

Search support.citrix.com for “WinDBG” to get a list of How To guides.
WinDBG 64-bit This is the Windows debugger for 64-bit platforms.

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Ports and Printing

– any cases related to port mapping and printing, printer autocreation, printer drivers, replications, and spooler issues/crashes

What What it does More information
StressPrinters 1.3.2 for 32-bit and 64-bit Platforms Use to test if a driver is suitable for multi-user environments. It should be configured with multiple instances simultaneously, simulating multiple sessions autocreating printers using the same print driver. This allows an admin to ensure a driver does not cause a fatal error on their server and autocreates successfully.
Print Detective Enumerates print drivers on local and remote machines. Displays driver details, provider, supporting files, and so on. Great for determining non-native print drivers and quickly removing them.
PRINTUI Built-in utility to perform many printing related tasks including pushing print drivers, adding and deleting printers, and more. PRINTUI Reference
CHANGE CLIENT

– Available with the Citrix Presentation Server/XenApp installation.

Change client changes the current disk drive, COM port, and LPT port mapping settings for a client device.

“Change Client” or “CHGCDM” command

Can be used to query or refresh client setting or printer settings. May correct settings for a timing issue at connect time or clients reconnecting from a new device.
Driver Deleter A utility for cleaning the registry after removing printer drivers.

The Driver Deleter utility is used to remove old driver files and registry entries before installing new drivers. After running this utility you must reboot your server for the effects to take place.

[Document Not Found] The ListPrinterDrivers tool allows you to list all printer drivers in a farm.
Portmon for Windows v3.03 Displays serial and parallel port activity on a system with the capability to filter the output for better overview. Useful to troubleshoot port problems, for example, using a device on the client’s serial port from a published application. Run the tool in the session and on the client and see which actual commands are being sent to the port.

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Resource Manager

What What it does More information
TSSHUTDN Enables an administrator to remotely shut down or reboot a terminal server. You can also choose to power off the server if the computer supports software control of AC power.

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Seamless

– any issue related to applications in Seamless only

What What it does More information
MessageHistory Simple GUI tool that traces window messages, like Spy++, but easier to use.

Consists of two executable files (32- and 64-bit). Simply start the exe, select via tick boxes which messages should be traced and click start.

Used to troubleshoot issues with GUI, Seamless, Clipboard, client, and so on.
WindowHistory 4.0 for 32-bit platforms The WindowHistory utility complements Spy++ and other tools. It constantly monitors windows in the system (session) and records all changes made to it. Information about windows can then be saved for further analysis.
[Document Not Found] This is the version of the WindowHistory tool that works on ARM processors.
WindowHistory64 4.0 for x64 Platforms This is the version of the WindowHistory tool that works on 64-bit platforms.
Winspector Winspector is a freeware that can be used instead of Spy++ with pretty much the same functionality.

It captures all messages (keyboard input, mouse movements/click, changes in the window size and location, and so on) sent to a particular application for identifying issues with ICA clients, compare results inside a session and outside a session, keyboard mapping issues, and so on.

Useful for troubleshooting some Seamless Windows issues and allows distinguishing of the Window Class Name, which is then used to set an exception flag.

CTX101644

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Shadowing

What What it does More information
SHADOW Enables you to remotely control an active session of another user.

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Virtual IP (VIP)

What What it does More information
QRYClientIP Command line tool to query a session’s client IP. Used to allow one login script to process specific commands for specific IP addresses or IP segments.

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Web Interface

What What it does More information
CTXXMLSS

– Available with the Citrix Presentation Server/XenApp installation

By default, the Citrix XML Service shares a port with IIS. The CTXXMLSS command can be used to change to a different port, or revert back to sharing with IIS CTX104063

Can be used to ensure that port conflicts are not seen on Presentation Servers with IIS. Try changing the XML port to a different port to see if problem persists.

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WHY USE HP MOONSHOT FROM THE CUSTOMER’S VIEW POINT (Repost of Carl Webster article)

December 22, 2014

Written by

Carl Webster

Source: WHY USE HP MOONSHOT FROM THE CUSTOMER’S VIEW POINT

Between August and November 2014, I have worked on three HP Moonshot Proof of Concepts (two in the USA and one in the Middle East). While Moonshot is not the solution to every desktop problem in the world, it has some very strong advantages. I decided to reach out to a couple of the Citrix leads on these PoCs and have them tell you why they selected to use Moonshot. Before I give you their comments, a couple of items:

  • Don’t ask for the company names, you will not get them
  • Don’t ask for the individual’s names, you will not get them
  • Don’t ask for their contact information, you will not get it
  • Don’t ask me to put you in contact with them, not going to happen
  • Don’t ask me to put them in contact with you, not going to happen

Both of these individuals read my blog and I will send them the link to this article. If you have any questions for them or me, leave a comment and if they are allowed to, they will respond to the comments.

I only edited their responses to correct typos, line formatting and wrapping in their responses and had them correct a couple of sentences that were not clear to me.

The questions I asked them to respond to: “Why did you select HP Moonshot over traditional VDI?  Because doesn’t Moonshot cost way more per user than traditional VDI?”

Medical Related Field

Note: This customer will deliver around 2,000 desktops with Moonshot.

Costs comparison: Moonshot HDI vs VDI

My friend Carl ask me last week: “Why did you select HP Moonshot over traditional VDI?  Because doesn’t Moonshot cost way more per user than traditional VDI?”

During my lifetime of layovers in the world’s most “cozy” terminal (much love EWR), I teetered away from basically disagreeing with the question, but I’m feeling more accommodating since then. Comparing the two methods is a tough one.

On one hand we have user dedicated PCs, and on the other we have a populated blade chassis, shared via your virtualization of choice. Totally an apples and oranges situation. So the difference maybe be jarring, in that the Moonshot m700 carts do not require any hypervisor. Every m700 cart has 4 self-contained systems and supports booting directly from Citrix PVS 7.1.

For those that have done HDI on the past with other solutions, this one is much smaller, at around 5u’s….get ready for this, 180 PCs in 5u’s. Maybe I’m easy to impress, but that is kind of amazing. 180 PCs with a fully dedicated 8gb, four core APU, and onboard SSD. If this PC was sitting on your desktop all by its lonesome, that would be a pretty great business-class system.

You could get the same specs from traditional VDI, but you would need a system that supported almost 1.5tb of memory and 720 cores, and then would require a virtualization layer to share it all out.

What end users want is an experience like they are using a dedicated computer, and what a better solution than one which is exactly that?! So this is why I almost disagree with the question. The cost difference as little as it may be is now negligible because the experience is head and shoulders above any traditional VDI experience I have encountered.

It is all about experience and alignment, the end-user knows what they want from their experience. It is up to us “techies” to get them to a solution that is in alignment with the business case.

Retail Related Field

Note: This customer will deliver around 750 desktops with Moonshot.

My answer would be:

As a long time Citrix admin, I knew the advantages of centralized compute environments. For many years I was at a community bank and we used terminals connecting to Citrix published desktops on MetaFrame XP.  This in essence was the first type of VDI.  We were able to support nearly 400 users with an IT staff of 4 full time employees. There was only a user side Linux device, and all user compute was load balanced across the farm.  Roaming profiles and redirected folders stayed on shares in the data center.  This gave a measure of security for PII data, knowing it was not on remote hard drives that could be lost or stolen.  Also there is an economic benefit to this model as terminals usually cost less than PCs and have a far longer useful life than PCs.  Using terminals also gives a centralized management framework that allows for minimal daily maintenance for the user end points.

So the concepts of VDI have strong advantages for organizations concerned with user data security, user hardware life cycles, and IT management with a small staff.

I am now at a larger organization with multiple corporate sites and several hundred retail stores. I had been trying for a year or more to raise interest in traditional VDI at my current company. We have a very robust VMware environment and SAN.  We also use XenApp to provide multiple user apps across the country to our retail stores and other corporate sites.

Additionally, we have a large number of onsite consultants working on multiple projects. My suggestion was to use VDI to provide all the advantages above on a new project. The retail store managers needed a way to have more robust applications and other access that could not be accommodated on a POS sales register.  Also, each consultant was issued a company laptop. The motivation was to keep data assets safe as possible and under company control.

My suggestion was to use VDI and terminals for a new store user system and for consultants. Including the consultants could enforce the traditional controls but allow for BYOD to reduce hardware expense.

But there was a lot of resistance because of the general understanding that VDI could go very badly. There is another problem with IOPS when it comes to VDI. All IOPS coming out of virtual desktops are typically treated as “equal” by the hypervisor. This causes a lack of consistent user experience (as user workloads vary). Imagine a user running a zip file compression or running an on-demand virus scan on the same host as the CEO who needs his desktop to work on his board meeting presentation. I researched several hybrid and flash based storage systems aligned with VDI deployments. My conclusion was that the total VDI solution was viable now because of the new storage options.

But that was not the only barrier.  The organization is very committed to vendor standardization and not enabling a sprawl of siloes of independent solutions.  So the addition of new VDI-centric storage was not agreeable.  And without that enhancement, the usual VDI IOPs concern remained.

Another hurdle turned out to be the business side.  As they came to understand the shared nature of VDI resources, there was growing resistance.  No one wanted a system that was not completely “theirs”. Even after explaining the IT benefits and small probabilities of user bottlenecks, it was still not well thought of. So traditional VDI was not seen as a safe and reliable solution to match the company culture and expectations.

Then I discovered the HP Moonshot platform and the Converged System 100. Immediately I knew that it had great potential.  Hosted Desktop Infrastructure solves all the concerns I encountered.  It matched our existing hardware vendor. It provides substantial dedicated CPU, GPU, and RAM for every user. And because of the nature of Citrix Provisioning and its ability to cache in memory, the user IOPs to disk are greatly reduced.  Plus Citrix Provisioning frees the onboard 64GB SSD for other uses.  It could hold persistent data, or business apps.  We use it as the page file location.

The use of XenDesktop and Receiver also creates a user system that can be available anytime on multiple devices.

I will say there is one caveat.  We decided to segregate the CS100 server components on dedicated VMware hosts. We also used a new HP 3PAR system as the underlying storage for all of the design. This was mainly because it started as a POC.  But because of its success, and vendor match, the additional hosts and storage was something that was accepted.

Another motivation for making that “giant leap” to Moonshot was the vision behind it. Having that chassis in your Data Center does more than enable HDI. Other server cartridges are available and more will be available in the future. I think it’s the beginning of a new phase of hardware consolidation and server computing. Also, the power consumption is impressive.  It only requires 33 watts typical for a cartridge running 4 Windows systems with a Quad core AMD APU, 8GB RAM, and an SSD.

Another plus is each Windows node has 2 x 1GB NICs.  This may not be meaningful when you think of an end user station.  But having it there gives you more options. We use 1 NIC as a normal LAN link.  The second is used as a direct link to a dedicated iSCSI LUN on the 3PAR.  Having a permanent storage partition per system has enabled us to add business data that is unique to each store location.

I am a big fan of HP HDI and Moonshot in general.  I know our particular situation will not match a lot of businesses.  But people should sit down and think about the potential it offers in terms of consolidation, energy savings, flexibility of architectures, end user mobility and user computing resources.  I believe it is a game changer on several levels.


There you go.

If you have any questions or comments, leave them in the comments section.

Thanks

Webster

Zero to 5000 Citrix VDI Users Logged-in and Working in Just 30 Minutes! (repost from Cisco Blog > Data Center and Cloud)

Making sure your users don’t go to sleep (or worse) waiting to log-on
Hi Everyone! I am the team lead Technical Marketing Engineer for Cisco Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) solutions on UCS and Nexus. While I have done some blogging in my time – this is my first blog for Cisco. I have been in this space for over 22 years, before “virtualization” was called that, working with published applications and published desktops (MetaFrame and early RDP.)
With the Citrix and EMC teams, I have been focused for the past few months on validating what I think is a really exciting solution – even if I say so myself. So recently not much time for blogging I am afraid.
Over the last couple of years we have seen desktop virtualization, specifically Hosted Virtual Desktops (HVD,) become increasingly more mainstream – but today we are really experiencing an upsurge of deployments – and not just pilots – but full blown multi-thousand seat deployments.
As you are probably aware the worst nightmare is that you deploy the solution and the users don’t adopt it because it doesn’t provide them the user experience they need or want.
One of the key requirements for success is an infrastructure that won’t just provide the right experience for the first few hundred users – but that will scale linearly as you grow into the many thousands.
You can rely on Cisco Validated Designs to deliver for you! We use real world test scenarios to insure that you can implement our designs in your environment and be successful.
The keys to a successful deployment of a large scale HVD environment start with:


• Detailed characterization of the virtual workloads
• Desktop Broker that supports efficient streaming capabilities
• Reliable, fast User Profile management
• Compute platform that provides linear scalability, rapid expandability, and excellent management tools across hundreds to thousands of servers
• Network infrastructure that provides the right amount of bandwidth to the right traffic
• Storage system that is capable of efficiently handling massive IOs, both on the read side
for boot up and the write side for HVD ramp up and steady state
• A robust hypervisor capable of supporting advanced capabilities required for HVDs
• Fault tolerance at all levels of the solution, producing a highly available system

Cisco UCS together with Citrix technologies, EMC VNX storage, and VMware vSphere provide the key foundation for a high performance, highly available HVD environment:
• Login VSI 3.6 Medium workload was used to represent a typical knowledge worker
• Citrix XenDesktop 5.6 FP1 with Citrix Provisioning Server 6.1 provided the ultimate desktop streaming technology with the smallest storage footprint
• Citrix User Profile Manager was used to manage 5000 unique desktop user profiles
• Cisco UCS B230 M2 blade servers provided awesome compute resources and Cisco UCS 6248UP Fabric Interconnects (FIs) managed server hardware, network and storage for the environment.
• Cisco UCS Service Profile Templates and Service Profiles made server deployment fast, efficient and insured that each blade was provisioned exactly the same as the next.
• Cisco UCS Manager, with tight integration with VMware ESXi, handled management of all of the blades across the 5 VMware clusters used in our solution seamlessly
• Cisco Nexus 5548UP Access Switches and (for the first time in a Cisco VDI CVD) Cisco Nexus 1000V distributed virtual switches in conjunction with our FIs provided end to end Quality of Service for all traffic types from the HVD through the hypervisor, the FIs and through the Nexus 5548UPs – all at 10 GE or 8 Gb FC!
• EMC VNX7500 with Fast Cache, provided the outstanding read and write IO to support 5000 HVDs boot up, ramp up, steady state and log off
• For the first time in a Cisco VDI CVD, our design provides N+1 server fault tolerance at the VMware cluster level. Another real-world differentiator for Cisco!

Here is a look at the hardware used in the solution:

Whitney5KRefDiag

The highlight benefits of the joint validated design for deploying a scalable Citrix XenDesktop include the following:

Highlights

Whitney5KHighlights

I will be writing more about the in depth details of our Zero to 5000 solution in the coming weeks. Please let me know what you are interested in exploring!

For more information download the Cisco Validated design http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/unified_computing/ucs/UCS_CVDs/citrix_emc_ucs_scaleVDI.pdf

And for more information on Cisco VXI solutions for desktop virtualization go to http://www.cisco.com/go/vxi

Count The Ways – Flash as Local Storage to an ESXi Host

Count The Ways – Flash as Local Storage to an ESXi Host
Posted: 21 Jul 2014   By: Joel Grace

When performance trumps all other considerations, flash technology is a critical component to achieve the highest level of performance. By deploying Fusion ioMemory, a VM can achieve near-native performance results. This is known as pass-through (or direct) I/O.

The process of achieving direct I/O involves passing the PCIe device to the VM, where the guest OS sees the underlying hardware as its own physical device. The ioMemory device is then formatted with “file system” by the OS, rather than presented as a virtual machine file system (VMFS) datastore. This provides the lowest latency, highest IOPS and throughput. Multiple ioMemory devices can also be combined to scale to the demands of the application.

Another option is to use ioMemory as a local VMFS datatstore. This solution provides high VM performance, while maintaining its ability to utilize features like thin provisioning, snapshots, VM portability and storage vMotion. With this configuration, the ioMemory can be shared by VMs on the same ESXi host and specific virtual machine disks (VMDK) stored here for application acceleration.

Either of these options can be used for each of the following design examples.

Benefits of Direct I/O:

Raw hardware performance of flash within a VM with Direct I/OProvides the ability to use RAID across ioMemory cards to drive higher performance within the VMUse of any file system to manage the flash storage

Considerations of Direct I/O:

ESXi host may need to be rebooted and CPU VT flag enabledFusion-io VSL driver will need to be install in the guest VM to manage deviceOnce assigned to a VM the PCI device cannot be share with any other VMs

Benefits Local Datastore:

High performance of flash storage for VM VMDKsMaintain VMware functions like snapshots and storage vMotion

Considerations Local Datastore:

Not all VMDKs for a given VM have to reside on local flash use shared storage for OS and flash for application DATA VMDKsSQL/SIOS

Many enterprise applications reveal their own high availability (HA) features when deployed in bare metal environments. These elements can be used inside VMs to provide an additional layer of protection to an application, beyond that of VMware HA.

Two great SQL examples of this are Microsoft’s Database Availability Groups and SteelEye DataKeeper. Fusion-io customers leverage these technologies in bare metal environments to run all-flash databases without sacrificing high availability. The same is true for virtual environments.

By utilizing shared-nothing cluster aware application HA, VMs can still benefit from the flexibility provided by virtualization (hardware abstraction, mobility, etc.), but also take advantage of local flash storage resources for maximum performance.

Benefits:

Maximum application performanceMaximum application availabilityMaintains software defined datacenter

Operational Considerations:

100% virtualization is a main goal, but performance is criticalDoes virtualized application have additional HA features?SAN/NAS based datastore can be used for Storage vMotion if hosts needs to be taken offline for maintenanceCITRIX

The Citrix XenDesktop and XenApp application suites also present interesting use cases for local flash in VMWare environments. Often times these applications are deployed in a stateless fashion via Citrix Provisioning Services, where several desktop clones or XenApp servers are booting from centralized read-only golden images. Citrix Provisioning Services stores all data changes during the users’ session in a user-defined write cache location.  When a user logs off or the XenApp server is rebooted, this data is flushed clean. The write cache location can be stored across the network on the PVS servers, or on local storage devices. By storing this data on a local Fusion-io datastore on the ESXi host, it drastically reduces access time to active user data making for a better Citrix user experience and higher VM density.

Benefits:

Maximum application performanceReduced network load between VM’s and Citrix PVS ServerAvoids slow performance when SAN under heavy IO pressureMore responsive applications for better user experience

Operational Considerations

Citrix Personal vDisks (persistent desktop data) should be directed to the PVS server storage for resiliency.PVS vDisk Images can also be stored on ioDrives in the PVS server further increasing performance while eliminating the dependence on SAN all together.ioDrive capacity determined by Citrix write cache sizing best practices, typically a 5GB .vmdk per XenDekstop instance.

70 desktops x 5GB write cache = 350GB total cache size (365GB ioDrive could be used in this case).

The Citrix XenDesktop and XenApp application suites also present interesting use cases for local flash in VMWare environments. Often times these applications are deployed in a stateless fashion via Citrix Provisioning Services, where several desktop clones or XenApp servers are booting from centralized read-only golden images. Citrix Provisioning Services stores all data changes during the users’ session in a user-defined write cache location.  When a user logs off or the XenApp server is rebooted, this data is flushed clean. The write cache location can be stored across the network on the PVS servers, or on local storage devices. By storing this data on a local Fusion-io datastore on the ESXi host, it drastically reduces access time to active user data making for a better Citrix user experience and higher VM density.

VMware users can boost their system to achieve maximum performance and acceleration using flash memory. Flash memory will maintain maximum application availability during heavy I/O pressure, and makes your applications more responsive, providing a better user experience. Flash can also reduce network load between VMs and Citrix PVS Server.Click here to learn more about how flash can boost performance in your VMware system.

Joel Grace Sales Engineer
Source: http://www.fusionio.com/blog/count-the-ways.
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